medicine research

medicine research

Kidney cancer: symptoms, types, diagnosis and treatment

Kidney cancer: symptoms, types, diagnosis and treatment

Kidney cancer is a malignant tumor that develops in the organ of the urinary system. In men, the disease is diagnosed much more often than in women, while the reliable reasons for the development of the tumor have not been established. The danger of the disease lies in the fact that malignant cells are able to penetrate into other organs and tissues. Therefore, it is important to know about the features of the disease in order to seek medical help on time.

Main types and stages
In medicine, the following types of kidney cancer (malignant tumors) are distinguished:

renal cell (clear cell, tubular, granular cell, papillary carcinoma);
neuroendocrine;
nephroblastic;
mesenchymal;
germ cells, etc.
Depending on the size of the tumor and the extent of metastasis, the following stages of kidney cancer are distinguished:

At the first stage, the size of the tumor is less than 7 cm, while it does not go beyond the kidney. There are no lymph node metastases.
At the second stage, the tumor already exceeds 7 cm and is rapidly developing. Malignant cells infect the lymph nodes.
At the third stage, the neoplasm exceeds 10 cm, grows into the vessels and lymph nodes.
In the fourth stage, malignant cells affect other organs and tissues.
Signs and symptoms of the disease
Early signs of kidney cancer are usually absent. Sometimes even neglected tumors are discovered by chance, while the patient’s well-being remains satisfactory. Among the first symptoms are blood in the urine, renal colic and fever.

As kidney cancer progresses, symptoms worsen. The patient loses weight and has constant weakness and apathy. Rapid fatigue, lack of appetite is observed. In addition, swelling of the legs occurs or varicocele develops.

Kidney cancer diagnosis
Screening for kidney cancer includes a number of laboratory and instrumental studies:

general analysis of blood and urine, cytological examination;
Ultrasound of the kidneys;
x-ray;
angiography;
computed tomography with the introduction of contrast;
radionuclide scanning;
magnetic resonance imaging.

How is the treatment carried out?
Complex treatment of kidney cancer is usually prescribed. The program is based on surgical intervention. Removing a kidney for cancer increases the chances of survival. In the early stages, it is possible to carry out an operation with the preservation of the organ, but in most cases, the kidney is removed along with the surrounding tissues.

In addition to surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy are also performed. Other modern therapies are most effective, such as targeted therapy and immunotherapy. All drugs for drug treatment are selected individually.

The specialists of our clinic are well aware of how to treat kidney cancer. They have extensive experience and practice modern methods, and an integrated approach allows you to draw up an effective treatment regimen.

Forecasts and prevention
Survival for kidney cancer depends on the size of the tumor and the presence of metastases https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metastasis. In the later stages, the indicator does not exceed 20%. A high risk of mortality is associated with rapid tumor growth and the spread of metastases. In addition, even with proper treatment, a relapse of the disease may occur.

Prevention of kidney cancer in adults and children consists in maintaining a healthy lifestyle (good nutrition, physical activity). It is equally important to treat urological diseases on time and give up bad habits.