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Nipple cancer: how is it manifested, diagnosed and treated?

Nipple cancer: how is it manifested, diagnosed and treated?

Paget’s disease (breast nipple cancer) is a form of breast cancer. More often women suffer from pathology after 50-60 years, but sometimes the disease is diagnosed in men. A malignant tumor is often characterized by rapid progression. Due to the ability to metastasize even to distant organs, the tumor poses a serious danger to the patient’s life.

If Paget’s cancer is found, the prognosis depends on the stage of the pathology. In the early stages, the tumor responds well to treatment, and in distant metastases, the percentage of 5-year survival is significantly reduced. This is why it is important to start therapy on time.

Causes of occurrence
It is not known exactly what causes the disease, but it is believed that cancerous elements penetrate to the nipple through the milk ducts from another breast tumor, or normal cells under the influence of various factors are reborn into malignant ones.

The following effects can provoke the development of nipple cancer:

hereditary predisposition;
nipple injury;
exposure to carcinogenic substances;
scleroderma;
cervical cancer;
hormonal disorders.
Nipple cancer symptoms
In the early stages, the pathology develops asymptomatically. It can be discovered by chance during a routine examination or diagnosis of another disease. If Paget’s cancer develops, the first symptoms of pathology appear as follows:

the color of the nipple and areola changes;
peeling of the skin appears, the formation of scales;
itching or burning, discomfort is constantly present;
the sensitivity of the nipple increases significantly.
Later, changes in the nipple are observed in cancer. It can change not only color, but also shape, size, swelling is often noticeable. Often, on the contrary, nipple retraction is present in cancer. When pressed, bloody or purulent discharge appears. In addition, pain intensifies, lymph nodes increase, weakness and fatigue appear.

Knowing what Paget’s cancer is and how it can be dangerous, if the listed symptoms are found, it is necessary to urgently consult a doctor and undergo a comprehensive examination.

How is Paget cancer diagnosed?
The difficulty in diagnosing nipple cancer is that at an early stage it is asymptomatic, and the clinical picture is similar to other diseases. A comprehensive examination always begins with a consultation with a mammologist, who collects an anamnesis and conduct an objective examination (palpation).

13452468 – self exam against breast cancer

Also, the diagnosis of cancer of the Vater papilla includes the following studies:

Ultrasound;
mammography;
laboratory tests of nipple discharge;
MRI;
scintigraphy;
biopsy.
An integrated approach to diagnosis helps not only to correctly diagnose, but also to correctly determine the stage of the disease, to detect metastases in other organs.

Treatment methods
In case of nipple cancer, complex treatment is carried out, although the basis of therapy is an operation to remove the tumor. If cancer of the nipple of Vater is detected at an early stage, the operation consists of resection of the areola. With a more common tumor process, a mastectomy is performed, and with advanced pathology, a radical mastectomy (also includes the removal of adipose tissue, lymph nodes, etc.).

Additionally, a course of chemotherapy and radiation therapy is prescribed. The techniques are aimed at destroying the remaining cancer cells, which helps to avoid recurrence. Symptomatic and hormonal therapy can also be used.