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Ovarian cancer: symptoms, diagnosis, treatment

Ovarian cancer: symptoms, diagnosis, treatment

Many women are interested in what is ovarian cancer. This is a malignant tumor that develops from the tissues of the appendages. Pathology is one of the most common cancers. Life expectancy for ovarian cancer depends on the stage at which it was detected. The five-year survival rate in the early stages is 88-90%, but in the later stages the prognosis is less favorable – 10-20%. Therefore, it is important for women to know about the features of the disease in order to seek medical help on time, if necessary.

Main reasons
The reasons for the development of ovarian cancer have not been reliably established, but it is believed that the following are predisposing factors:

burdened heredity;
bad habits;
hormonal disorders;
early menarche;
infertility and lack of childbirth;
frequent abortions;
exposure to chemicals.
The risk of developing a malignant tumor increases after 40 years.

Types and stages
Ovarian cancer can be primary or secondary. In the first case, the tumor develops from glandular tissue, in the second, it degenerates from benign cysts. A separate category can be attributed to metastatic lesions of the ovaries, when initially a malignant tumor is localized in the liver, stomach, lungs or other organs.

Other forms of ovarian cancer are less common:

dysgerminoma;
clear cell carcinoma;
granulosa cell;
stromal;
adenoblastoma;
teratocarcinoma;
Brenner’s tumor.
In medicine, the following stages of development of ovarian cancer are distinguished:

At the first stage, the tumor is localized in one ovary.
In the second stage, malignant cells affect the second ovary.
In the third stage, the tumor spreads to the peritoneum and adjacent organs.
At the fourth stage, metastases are found in distant organs (brain, bones, lungs).

Symptoms and Signs
The first signs of ovarian cancer women are often confused with digestive disorders or hormonal disruptions. The patient may be disturbed by:

bloating;
flatulence;
heaviness in the abdomen;
pulling pain in the lower abdomen.
As the pathology progresses, the symptoms of ovarian cancer become more pronounced. There is a frequent urge to urinate, the abdomen is enlarged, and pain in the abdomen and back worries. There may be painful sensations with intimacy or uterine bleeding. When the tumor is twisted, it can cause severe abdominal pain.

If these symptoms appear, see your doctor and get tested.

How is the disease diagnosed?
Diagnosis begins with a pelvic examination. Next, an ultrasound scan is performed for signs of ovarian cancer in a transvaginal way to visualize the tumor, an analysis is prescribed for tumor markers CA-19.9, CA-125. The next step is diagnostic laparoscopy with biopsy. Then the biological material is sent for histological and cytological studies.

Treatment features
If ovarian cancer is diagnosed, treatment is based on surgery. In most cases, the uterus is removed along with the ovaries and omentum. In the early stages, fertility can be preserved. Additionally, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are used to remove cancer cells and prevent their metastasis to other organs.