Thyroid cancer is a pathology associated with uneven, abnormal proliferation of organ cells. This type of oncology is considered rare. In most cases, the prognosis for patients is favorable. This is due to the fact that it is possible to diagnose it mainly at the initial stages of development.
Most often (in about 76% of cases), the papillary type of thyroid cancer occurs, in 14% of cases the follicular type is detected, in 5-6% of patients a medullary type is diagnosed, in 3-4% of cases it is an anaplastic or undifferentiated type of tumor.
Causes of thyroid cancer
The exact reasons for the development of a thyroid tumor are not known to doctors. But there are certain risk factors that significantly increase the likelihood of developing pathology. These include:
The negative effect of radiation on the body. Its source can be X-rays, radioactive fallout.
Hereditary predisposition. The development of a thyroid tumor may be based on genetic changes in the human body.
Age. Oncologists have noted an increased risk of developing oncology in people over 40 years old.
Belonging to the Caucasian race. In African Americans, this type of oncology is diagnosed much less frequently.
Iodine deficiency in the body. Some cancers are common in regions where there is a lack of this element in water and food.
Symptoms of thyroid cancer
To be sure of successful treatment of the disease, it is important to see a doctor as early as possible. To do this, you need to know how to recognize thyroid cancer.
The first signs of thyroid cancer that are important to pay attention to include:
a cough that is not associated with a cold or infectious disease;
discomfort or pain in the neck area (it may radiate to the ear area);
hoarseness of voice;
lump on the neck (may grow rapidly).
If you find any of the listed signs in yourself, it is recommended to consult a doctor and undergo a comprehensive examination. The earlier the diagnosis is made and treatment is started, the better the prognosis for the patient.
Diagnosis of thyroid cancer
They use modern methods of diagnosing oncological diseases:
Visual examination and palpation of the thyroid gland.
Ultrasound. This study is absolutely safe and helps to determine the structure of the organ, the presence of fluid and nodes in it.
Biopsy with histology and immunochemical examination of neoplasm tissues.
Analysis for tumor markers.
CT (can be combined with PET-CT). The study is carried out to determine the stage of the oncological process, evaluate the therapy being performed, exclude relapse, and detect a tumor with metastases.
Thyroid Cancer Treatment
The treatment regimen for thyroid cancer is selected individually for each patient. In this case, the oncologist is guided by the type of education, the stage of development of the oncological process, the general condition of the patient and other factors. Treatment may include:
Surgical intervention. During the operation, the removal of malignant nodes or the entire organ is performed.
Radioiodine therapy – based on the use of radioactive iodine.
Radiation therapy, which consists in external irradiation of the affected area.
Molecular targeted therapy.
This type of oncology has good prognosis. If the disease is detected in the initial stages, a complete cure can be achieved in more than 95% of patients. After therapy, they can lead a fulfilling life. Therefore, it is important to undergo regular medical examinations. Especially if the person has a predisposition or there are risk factors for the development of a malignant tumor of the thyroid gland.